思憶福克蘭戰爭


阿根廷總統 Leopoldo F. Galtieri 於正式出兵福克蘭群島後發表公開演說。
1982年4月2日。
Photo: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 5 April 1982/Wikimedia Commons

To proportion the eagerness of contest to its importance seems too hard a task for human wisdom. The pride of wit has kept ages busy in the discussion of useless questions, and the pride of power has destroyed armies, to gain or to keep unprofitable possessions.
~ Samuel Johnson,
"Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland’s Islands", 1771

 

上週六,也就是六月十四日,台北某些人因釣魚台問題而引發的「不惜一戰」情緒飆到新高點,連政府也急急召回了駐日代表。台日兩國既無正式邦交,連如此重大外交手段都祭出來了,剩下來的只有取消免簽證措施、經濟抵制、宣戰這幾招可用。由於當局者對日本向無好感,主戰派的聲音也就特別大聲。針對此事,已有許多值得一讀的評論與警語,不待我來續貂。我只想簡單就我粗淺所知,談談發生於1982年的英阿福克蘭戰爭(/Guerra de las Malvinas)。當年,那場戰爭的爆發令我頗感訝異;戰爭爆發後不久,看到國際反應與英軍擺出的態勢,我開始認為開戰者真是莫名其妙。如今事隔四分之一個世紀,相信有不少人與我有相同的想法:那真是場愚蠢的戰爭。

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從「最後的審判」談起

Michelangelo, The Last Judgement,
Sistine Chapel, 1535-1541. (Detail)
Photo from Wikimedia Commons

Lacrimosa dies illa,

qua resurget ex favilla

judicandus homo reus.

(Tearful that day,

on which will rise from ashes

guilty man for judgement.)

Dies Irae

在莫札特的《安魂曲》中,這一段「Lacrimosa… 」悠然又幽然地緩緩帶入末日審判的序幕景象,悲壯的合唱宛如遠方滾滾海浪逐漸逼近,在觀海者心中掀起陣陣顫慄。只見此生種種的人必須身臨岸邊,面對生命的盡頭,才會思及那超越生與死的終極檢驗,那超越現世榮辱臧匹的最後判決。

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從維多利亞時代到維多利亞的秘密(上)

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity,
it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness,
it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair,
we had everything before us, we had nothing before us,
we were all going direct to Heaven,
we were all going direct the other way
– in short, the period was so far like the present period,
that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received,
for good or for evil,
in the superlative degree of comparison only.
Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities

Political economy confuses on principle
two very different kinds of private property,
of which one rests on the producers’ own labor,
the other on the employment of the labor of others.
It forgets that the latter
not only is the direct antithesis of the former,
but absolutely grows on its tomb only.

Karl Marx, Capital

維多利亞時代(Victorian era)一詞源自於英國維多利亞女王(Queen Victoria, 1819-1901)之名。她統治英國長達六十四年半之久(1837-1901),此時期大致與英國工業革命、大英帝國、以及歐洲三者的全盛時期相符。

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